گیاهان دارویی: منبعی امیدبخش در پیشگیری و درمان بیماری‌های آبزیان

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ملایر، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، گروه علوم و مهندسی شیلات

2 دانشگاه ملایر، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، گروه علو و مهندسی شیلات

چکیده

با توجه به رشد صنعت آبزی‌پروری در دهه‌های اخیر و استفاده از روش‌های کشت متراکم، روند ابتلا به عوامل بیماری‌زا افزایش یافته است. لذا توجه محققین زیادی به سمت مطالعه‌ی تقویت سیستم ایمنی آبزیان در برابر عوامل بیماری‌زا معطوف شده است. استفاده از روش‌های رایج در درمان بیماری‌های آبزیان مانند آنتی بیوتیک‌ها دارای محدودیت‌هایی نظیر گسترش سویه‌های باکتریایی مقاوم، تجمع آن‌ها در عضلات و آسیب به محیط زیست است و برخی دیگر مانند واکسن‌ها در کنار تاثیرگذاری بالا، پر هزینه هستند. گیاهان دارویی بعنوان یک منبع ایمن و ارزان قیمت، با کمترین عوارض جانبی می‌توانند جایگزین مناسبی برای آنتی بیوتیک‌ها، مواد شیمیایی و واکسن‌ها در تقویت عملکرد ایمنی آبزیان ایفای نقش کنند. تاکنون بیش از 250 گونه گیاهی از 75 خانواده و 32 راسته عمدتا متعلق به راسته‌های نعناسانان، باقلاسانان، میناسانان، مالپیگی‌سانان و تیره نازبیابانیان با فعالیت‌های زیستی متعدد گزارش شده است که بدلیل وجود ترکیبات زیست فعالی مانند آلکالوئیدها، فلاوونوئیدها، رنگدانه‌ها، فنل‌ها،کوینون، ترپنوئیدها، لکتین، استروئیدها و روغن‌های ضروری باعث بهبود سیستم ایمنی و افزایش توان ضد میکروبی در آبزیان شده است. درک بهتر از نحوه عملکرد این ترکیبات زیست فعال می‌تواند به کاربردهای موثر و مناسب گیاهان دارویی در آبزی‌پروری منجر شود، زیرا می‌توان آن‌ها را برای هر ماهی به طور خاص استفاده کرد. در این مطالعه به نقش گیاهان دارویی از جمله تحریک سیستم ایمنی، ضد باکتریایی، ضد ویروسی، ضد قارچی و ضد انگلی پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Medicinal plants: A promising source in the prevention and treatment of aquatic animal diseases

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Zamani 1
  • Maryam Khajavi 2
1 Department of fisheries, Faculty of natural sciences and environmental, Malayer University , Hamedan. Iran
2 Department of Fisheries , Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In recent decades, the growth of the aquaculture industry and the use of intensive culture methods has increased the susceptibility to pathogens in aquatic animals.Therefore, many researchers have focused on the stimulation of the immune system against pathogens.The use of common methods in the control of aquatic diseases has limitations duo to the some side effects. Antibiotics cause the increase of bacterial resistance, accumulation in muscle, environmental damage and another methods, such as vaccines, are costly.Medicinal plants, as a safe and inexpensive source, can be a suitable alternative to antibiotics, chemicals and vaccines with minimal side effects. So far, more than 250 medical plant species from 75 families and 32 orders have been reported mainly belonging to Lamiales, Fabals, Asterales, Malpighiales, Euphorbiaceae and Phyllanthaceae. There are the various biological activities in herbs due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, pigments, phenols, terpenoids, lectin, steroids and essential oils. The evaluation of these bioactive compounds have shown that they can be improved the immune system and antimicrobial defense in aquatic animals. A better understanding of the bioactive compounds function can be lead to the effective application of medicinal plants in aquaculture, as they can be used specifically for each fish species. The aim of the present work is to investigate the role of medicinal plants in stimulation of immune system and to study the properties of the antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic effects in aquaculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aquacultute
  • Antibiotic
  • Medicinal plants
  • Bioactive compounds
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