جایگزینی پودر ماهی با پودر سویا در جیره غذایی تاثیر تداخلی در تولیدمثل آبزیان دارد

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات آب‌های دور، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، چابهار، ایران

چکیده

فیتواستروژن‌ها موادی هستند با فعالیت استروژنی که به‌طور طبیعی در گیاهان وجود دارند. بر خلاف استروئیدهای طبیعی مهره-داران، فیتواستروژن‌ها قدرت ضعیف‌تری دارند، در بدن ذخیره نمی‌شوند، به‌راحتی تجزیه می‌شوند و از طریق متابولیسم طبیعی از بدن خارج می‌گردند. سویا یک منبع پروتئینی با میزان تقریبا 40% می باشد. بنابراین پودر‌سویا از نظر پروتئین خام بالاست و نسبت اسید‌های آمینه ضروری آن بسیار مطلوب است و این خصوصیات سویا را یک کاندید خوب جهت جایگزینی با پودر ماهی نموده است. از طرفی، استفاده از پودر‌سویا به‌علت نگرانی از اثرات نامطلوب ناشناخته جیره‌های مبتنی بر پودر‌سویا بر سلامتی، رشد و نمو و تولیدمثل در صنعت آبزی‌پروری پذیرفته شده نیست. یکی از دلایل نگرانی از کاربرد پودر‌سویا وجود مقدار زیادی از ترکیبات فنولی است که ایزوفلاون‌ها نامیده می‌شوند. از جمله فیتواستروژن‌های گیاهی، ترکیبات ایزوفلاونی از جمله جنیستین و دیادزین هستند که به‌ عنوان ترکیبات استروژنی تعریف می‌شوند و در سویا به‌نسبت‌های 3/1 و 1 درصد یافت می‌شوند. عواقب تولیدمثلی ناشی از تداخل در عمل غدد درون‌ریز از طریق ترکیبات فنولی موجود در سویا که جزو فیتواستروژن‌ها هستند در ماهی‌ها کاملا درک نشده‌است، لذا در مقاله حاضر به بررسی جنبه های مختلف فیزیولوژیکی تاثیر سویا در جیره غذایی آبزیان پرداخته می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fish meal Replacement by Soybean meal has disruptive effects on fish Reproduction

نویسنده [English]

  • Tahereh Bagheri
Associate Prof., Dept. of Fish Processing, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Phytoestrogens are substances that are naturally occurring in the plants with estrogenic activity. Unlike naturally-occurring vertebrate steroids, phytoestrogens have a weaker strength, not stored in the body, easily decomposed and excreted through normal metabolism. Among the isophlonoids main phytoestrogens are genistein and diadzin, which are defined as estrogenic compounds and found in soybeans at a ratio of 1.3% and 1%. Soybean is a protein source. The average protein content of soybean is approximately 40%. Therefore, the raw powder is high in terms of crude protein and the ratio of essential amino acids is highly desirable. In the aquaculture industry, inclusion of soybean meal in fish diets has not been completely accepted, due to the concerns about the undesirable effects on health and reproduction development. One of the reasons for worrying about the use of soybean is the presence of large amounts of phenolic compounds, which are called isoflavones and can have potentially biological effects on the organisms. In other words, the reproductive effects of intercurrent interactions with phenol compounds in soybeans that are phytoestrogens are not fully understood in fish. Therefore, the present paper addresses the various physiological effects of soybean in aquatic diets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soybean
  • Diet
  • Replacement
  • Reproduction
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