وضعیت زیستی و دیدگاه‏های مختلف پرورش ماهی تیلاپیای نیل (Oreochromis niloticus) در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی سازش‏های زیستی و اکولوژیکی تیلاپیای نیل، بیان تجربیات سایر کشورها در معرفی آن و ارائه دیدگاه‏های مختلف پرورش این ماهی با توجه به شرایط ایران می‏باشد. در آب‏های داخلی ایران، 174 گونه ماهی وجود دارد که تعدادی از آنها دارای ارزش اقتصادی هستند. تیلاپیای نیل اولین بار در سال 1378 از کشور اندونزی به مرکز ملی آبزیان آب شور بافق یزد با هدف دستیابی به فناوری و بومی‏سازی تولید آن، اشتغال‏زایی و امکان توسعه کنترل شده، وارد کشور شد. طول عمر بالا، بلوغ جنسی زود هنگام، چند بار تخم‏ریزی در هر دوره تولیدمثلی، داشتن مقاومت زیاد نسبت به انواع بیماری‏ها و آلودگی‎ها، ‏‏همه‏چیزخواری و قدرت تغییر رژیم غذایی، قدرت تحمل دامنه‏ی بالای دمایی و شوری، حفاظت از تخمک توسط دهان ماهی ماده از ویژگی‏های تیلاپیا است. سرعت زادآوری و پتانسیل حذف بالای گونه‏های بومی بهمراه گزارش تعدادی از آنها در برخی از پهنه‏های آبی جنوب غربی کشور، استان خوزستان، موجب نگرانی‏هایی شده است. با توجه به عدم وجود راهکار کامل کنترلی موفق در دنیا و قابلیت تخریب بالای اکولوژیکی گونه‏ی تیلاپیای نیل، معرفی آن به کشور توصیه نمی‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Biotic condition and different viewpoints of farming of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Iran

چکیده [English]

The aims of this study were the survey of biological and ecological adaptations, other experiences in the world and different viewpoints about farming of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with regarding to Iranian’s situation. In 2008, the Nile Tilapia was introduced to achieve localization of technology and knowledge of tilapia fish production, de-employment and the possibility of controlled development in Bafgh, Iran. The characterizations of the fish , as an invasive species, are high adaptation to changes in salinity levels and oxygen availability, use of different trophic levels, high reproductive rate that . The recent studies have confirmed the presence of tilapia species in the southwest of Iran that creates a warms. Due to the lack of successful control methods and the mentioned ecological destruction effects, it is not recommended to introduce the species to the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tilapia
  • Ecosystem
  • Environment
  • Iran
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